Developing and applying new theoretical and computational methods to study complex condensed phase systems
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What Coordinate Best Describes the Affinity of the Hydrated Excess Proton for the Air–Water Interface?
Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy sampling are employed in this work to investigate the surface affinity of the hydrated excess proton with two definitions of the interface: The Gibbs dividing interface (GDI) and the Willard–Chandler interface (WCI). Both the multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) reactive molecular dynamics method and the density functional theory-based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) were used to describe the hydrated excess proton species, including “vehicular” (standard diffusion) transport and (Grotthuss) proton hopping transport and associated structures of the hydrated excess proton net positive charge defect. The excess proton is found to exhibit a similar trend and quantitative free energy behavior in terms of its surface affinity as a function of the GDI or WCI. Importantly, the definitions of the two interfaces in terms of the excess proton charge defect are highly correlated and far from independent of one another, thus undermining the argument that one interface is superior to the other when describing the proton interface affinity. Moreover, the hydrated excess proton and its solvation shell significantly influence the location and local curvature of the WCI, making it difficult to disentangle the interfacial thermodynamics of the excess proton from the influence of that species on the instantaneous surface curvature.
The dynamic instability of microtubules (MTs), which refers to their ability to switch between polymerization and depolymerization states, is crucial for their function. It has been proposed that the growing MT ends are protected by a “GTP cap” that consists of GTP-bound tubulin dimers. When the speed of GTP hydrolysis is faster than dimer recruitment, the loss of this GTP cap will lead the MT to undergo rapid disassembly. However, the underlying atomistic mechanistic details of the dynamic instability remains unclear. In this study, we have performed long-time atomistic molecular dynamics simulations (1 μs for each system) for MT patches as well as a short segment of a closed MT in both GTP- and GDP-bound states. Our results confirmed that MTs in the GDP state generally have weaker lateral interactions between neighboring protofilaments (PFs) and less cooperative outward bending conformational change, where the difference between bending angles of neighboring PFs tends to be larger compared with GTP ones. As a result, when the GDP state tubulin dimer is exposed at the growing MT end, these factors will be more likely to cause the MT to undergo rapid disassembly. We also compared simulation results between the special MT seam region and the remaining material and found that the lateral interactions between MT PFs at the seam region were comparatively much weaker. This finding is consistent with the experimental suggestion that the seam region tends to separate during the disassembly process of an MT.
The ESCRT complexes drive membrane scission in HIV-1 release, autophagosome closure, multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and other cell processes. ESCRT-I is the most upstream complex and bridges the system to HIV-1 Gag in virus release. The crystal structure of the headpiece of human ESCRT-I comprising TSG101–VPS28–VPS37B–MVB12A was determined, revealing an ESCRT-I helical assembly with a 12-molecule repeat. Electron microscopy confirmed that ESCRT-I subcomplexes form helical filaments in solution. Mutation of VPS28 helical interface residues blocks filament formation in vitro and autophagosome closure and HIV-1 release in human cells. Coarse-grained (CG) simulations of ESCRT assembly at HIV-1 budding sites suggest that the formation of a 12-membered ring of ESCRT-I molecules is a geometry-dependent checkpoint during late stages of Gag assembly and HIV-1 budding and templates ESCRT-III assembly for membrane scission. These data show that ESCRT-I is not merely a bridging adaptor; it has an essential scaffolding and mechanical role in its own right.
Hydrated excess protons under hydrophobic confinement are a critical component of charge transport behavior and reactivity in nanoporous materials and biomolecular systems. Herein, excess proton confinement effects are computationally investigated for sub-2 nm hydrophobic nanopores by varying the diameters (d = 0.81, 0.95, 1.09, 1.22, 1.36, 1.63, and 1.90 nm), lengths (l ∼3 and ∼5 nm), curvature, and chirality of cylindrical carbon nanotube (CNT) nanopores. CNTs with a combination of different diameter segments are also explored. The spatial distribution of water molecules under confinement is diameter-dependent; however, proton solvation and transport are consistently found to occur in the water layer adjacent to the pore wall, showing an “amphiphilic” character of the hydrated excess proton hydronium-like structure. The proton transport free energy barrier also decreases significantly as the nanopore diameter increases and proton transport becomes almost barrierless in the d > 1 nm nanopores. Among the nanopores studied, the Zundel cation (H5O2+) is populated only in the d = 0.95 nm CNT (7,7) nanopore. The presence of the hydrated excess proton and K+ inside the CNT (7,7) nanopore induces a water density increase by 40 and 20%, respectively. The K+ transport through CNT nanopores is also consistently higher in the free energy barrier than proton transport. Interestingly, the evolution of excess protonic charge defect distribution reveals a “frozen” single water wire configuration in the d = 0.81 nm CNT (6,6) nanopore (or segment), through which hydrated excess protons can only shuttle via the Grotthuss mechanism. Vehicular diffusion becomes relevant to proton transport in the “flat” free energy regions and in the wider nanopores, where protons do not primarily shuttle in the axial direction.
The tripartite-motif protein, TRIM5α, is an innate immune sensor that potently restricts retrovirus infection by binding to human immunodeficiency virus capsids. Higher-ordered oligomerization of this protein forms hexagonally patterned structures that wrap around the viral capsid, despite an anomalously low affinity for the capsid protein (CA). Several studies suggest TRIM5α oligomerizes into a lattice with a symmetry and spacing that matches the underlying capsid, to compensate for the weak affinity, yet little is known about how these lattices form. Using a combination of computational simulations and electron cryo-tomography imaging, we reveal the dynamical mechanisms by which these lattices self-assemble. Constrained diffusion allows the lattice to reorganize, whereas defects form on highly curved capsid surfaces to alleviate strain and lattice symmetry mismatches. Statistical analysis localizes the TRIM5α binding interface at or near the CypA binding loop of CA. These simulations elucidate the molecular-scale mechanisms of viral capsid cellular compartmentalization by TRIM5α.