|Title||Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II: Insight into Experimental Results and the Role of Solvation|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1998|
|Authors||Lu, D, Voth, GA|
|Keywords||Carbonic Anhydrases/*chemistry *Computer Simulation Histidine Humans Ligands *Models, Molecular Mutagenesis, Site-Directed *Protein Conformation Solvents Threonine Water Zinc|
In this paper, the carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) enzyme active site is modeled using ab initio calculations and molecular dynamics simulations to examine a number of important issues for the enzyme function. It is found that the Zn2+ ion is dominantly tetrahedrally coordinated, which agrees with X-ray crystallographic studies. However, a transient five-fold coordination with an extra water molecule is also found. Studies of His64 conformations upon a change in the protonation states of the Zn-bound water and the His64 residue also confirm the results of an X-ray study which suggest that the His64 conformation is quite flexible. However, the degree of water solvation is found to affect this behavior. Water bridge formation between the Zn-bound water and the His64 residue was found to involve a free energy barrier of 2-3 kcal/mol and an average lifetime of several picoseconds, which supports the concept of a proton transfer mechanism through such a bridge. Mutations of various residues around the active site provide further insight into the corresponding experimental results and, in fact, suggest an important role for the solvent water molecules in the CA II catalytic mechanism.